Locke also argued for the "reasonableness" of Christianity but rejected the efforts of Toland and other deists to claim him as their spiritual mentor. Writers such as Defoe and Swift did not confine themselves to straightforward discursive techniques in their pamphleteering but experimented deftly with mock forms and invented personae to carry the attack home.
Later in the Victorian Age, Naturalism entered into the literary thought with the theories of Charles Darwin and the plight of workers overwhelmed with the forces of nature and history, and the disappointments of urban life and industrialization. Richer talents also played their part. Rejecting Classicism and Rationalism, the Romantic poets examined inner feelings instead of using logic, and rejected the Greek and Roman literature for that of the Middle Ages.
By the s they had spread into what was interpreted as a general outpouring of the Spirit that bathed the American colonies, England, Wales, and Scotland.
It explores with great virtuosity the powers of the heroic couplet a pair of five-stress rhyming lines. As we have seen, the emotions were generally seen as motivating.
The awareness of their society and curiosity about the way it was developing, which they encouraged in their eager and diverse readership, left its mark on much subsequent writing. The pursuit of happiness was also an issue for British philosophers such as Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, although it sometimes paled next to their interests in moral evaluation.
Hopkins also employed a rhythmic pattern that came to be called sprung rhythm, which abandoned traditional metric feet.
But Mather and Edwards were defending a doomed cause. One of the most important contexts for understanding the epistemic strengths and weaknesses attributed to the emotions lies in their relation to the imagination.
Title page for Poor Richard's almanac forwritten, printed, and sold by Benjamin Franklin. Probably the first Victorian poet to depict the "bewildering confusion" of the industrial age was Matthew Arnold.
Elizabeth I ascended to the throne ina woman who contradicted many of the gender roles of the age. Of course, John Keats is a paragon of the Romantic: But two figures loomed above these— Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine.
But the rejection of innate ideas often drove them to focus explanations of the emotions on the hydraulics by which pains and pleasures push our ideas.
Swift grouped himself with Pope and Gay in hostility to the Walpole regime and the Hanoverian court, and that preoccupation leaves its mark on this work. Swift grouped himself with Pope and Gay in hostility to the Walpole regime and the Hanoverian court, and that preoccupation leaves its mark on this work.
Descartes, too, attributed an at least proto-propositional, representative structure to emotions.
Manuscript DivisionLibrary of Congress 61 Bookmark this item: Others fared better—for example, Franklin, whose tolerance and sense showed in addresses to the constitutional convention. In The Seasons first published as a complete entity in but then massively revised and expanded untilThomson meditated upon and described with fascinated precision the phenomena of nature.
Rejecting Classicism and Rationalism, the Romantic poets examined inner feelings instead of using logic, and rejected the Greek and Roman literature for that of the Middle Ages. Hutcheson also considered how the passions contribute or detract from our happiness.
In a complete turn from eighteenth century thinking, instead of holding with the concept of control over society and nature, the Romantics believed in democracy and the common people, and they felt that nature should be untamed.
The developments in vocabulary took place against a background of shared associations and assumptions about the emotions. A sermon in Boston attracted as many as 30, people. Indeed, Hutcheson multiplied the number of our sense-faculties to accommodate the wide variety of affects he recognizes.
With the advent of changes in rules of fashion and acceptable mores within society, some women established a literary niche writing etiquette guides. Its narrator, who begins as a prideful modern man and ends as a maddened misanthropeis also, disturbingly, the final object of its satire.
It also helped fuel the other great new genre of the 18th century: This drama was full of echoes of Goldsmith and Sheridan, but it contained a Yankee character the predecessor of many such in years to follow who brought something native to the stage.
He supported his claims by relating them to a complex metaphysical system and by reasoning brilliantly in clear and often beautiful prose.A lot can happen in years, as you'll see on our lesson that introduces you to British literature of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Go from Shakespeare to the invention of the novel to the. 17th and 18th Century Theories of Emotions First published Thu May 25, ; substantive revision Fri Oct 15, Early modern philosophy in Europe and Great Britain is awash with discussions of the emotions: they figure not only in philosophical psychology and related fields, but also in theories of epistemic method, metaphysics, ethics.
The Enlightenment began, most historians would probably concur, in midth century, and peaked in the 18th century, when its real center of gravity France, not (as in the Renaissance) Italy.
It was only really conscious of itself as an epochal movement from the early-mid 18th century on, though, and the word "Enlightenment" didn't really come. While there was some overlapping of the Neoclassicism of the 18th century into the Romanticism of the 19th century, and the Romantic movement into the Victorian Age, there are distinct differences.
The 18th century Publication of political literature. The expiry of the Licensing Act in halted state censorship of the press. During the next 20 years there were to be 10 general elections. A lot can happen in years, as you'll see on our lesson that introduces you to British literature of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Go from Shakespeare to the invention of the novel to the.Download