We have somewhat arbitrarily divided the supplement into the categories of clinical observations; epidemiology and surveillance; ecology and natural history; virology and pathogenesis; experimental therapy; control, response, prevention; and conclusions.
IgG and IgM ELISAs [ 2727a ] were used to evaluate the possibility of subclinical infections among family contacts [ 54 ], contacts of convalescent patients [ 44 ], medical staff [ 55 ], and local residents [ 30 ], and evidence suggested that a very low level of subclinical transmission occurred during the outbreak.
Much of the information concerning these outbreaks has been previously summarized [ 13 ]. The information gathered during control efforts directed toward recent epidemics has provided considerable fundamental information about filoviruses.
In late Octobera publication reported a study of the response to a mouse-adapted strain of Zaire ebolavirus presented by a genetically diverse population of mice that was bred to have a range of responses to the virus that includes fatality from hemorrhagic fever. Epidemiologic studies that were conducted in connection with both epidemics [ 1920 ] successfully traced the virus introductions to one Philippine exporter but failed to detect the actual source of the virus.
EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defenses. Although no contemporaneous controls are available for comparison, only 1 of the 8 treated patients died. During —, Ebola virus surveillance was carried out concurrently with intensified efforts to understand monkeypox [ 29 ].
But, Ebola could be considered moderately contagious, because the virus is not transmitted through the air. In contrast, patients in the affected villages were segregated through traditional methods of quarantine, a step that controlled the situation outside the clinics.
Serosurveillance in also suggested that human infections may have occurred from time to time [ 30 ]. Symptoms of Ebola typically include weakness, fever, aches, diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pain. The first report mentioned eight suspected cases, including two deaths, with a third death reported on May Ebola, the Second Known Filovirus Humans Meet Ebola Virus in Africa, In the late s, the international community was again startled, this time by the discovery of Ebola virus [ 10 ] as the causative agent of major outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC [ 11 ] and Sudan [ 12 ].
There was, however, evidence for Ebola virus RNA shed in semen and vaginal secretions for months [ 4452 ], although it was not possible to isolate virus.
Index cases of EVD have often been close to recently-deforested lands. Identification of cases was difficult because of weak surveillance and a fragile public health infrastructure. Nancy Writebol, an American aid worker in Liberia, tests positive for Ebola.
The exact source of his infection has not been identified but likely involved contact with wild animals. Replication of the viral genome results in full-length, positive-strand antigenomes that are, in turn, transcribed into genome copies of negative-strand virus progeny.
International scientific teams that arrived to deal with these highly virulent epidemics found that transmission had largely ceased; however, they could reconstruct considerable data from the survivors.
For example, inthe press and tabloid response in Kikwit was extraordinary and unanticipated. The sGP forms a dimeric protein that interferes with the signaling of neutrophilsanother type of white blood cell.
The international alarm and research efforts that arose in response to these outbreaks quickly dwindled when the only convincing evidence that Ebola virus infections were continuing among humans consisted of a small outbreak in the Sudan in [ 14 ] and 1 case in Tandala, DRC, in [ 15 ].
International scientific teams that arrived to deal with these highly virulent epidemics found that transmission had largely ceased; however, they could reconstruct considerable data from the survivors.(The Ebola "virus" is actually a group of four subtypes that are 30% to 45% different at the nucleotide level, suggesting that there are four different types of ebola viruses.) Nearly twenty years later, in Maya deadly outbreak appeared in Zaire.
A brief history: InEbola (named after the Ebola River in Zaire) first emerged in Sudan and Zaire. The first outbreak of Ebola (Ebola. InEbola (named after the Ebola River in Zaire) first emerged in Sudan and Zaire. The first outbreak of Ebola (Ebola-Sudan) infected over people, with a mortality rate of 53%.
A few months later, the second Ebola virus emerged from Yambuku, Zaire, Ebola-Zaire (EBOZ). 1. Introduction; 2. Origins of the Ebola epidemic; 3. Factors that contributed to undetected spread; 4. Guinea: The virus shows its tenacity; 5.
Liberia: A country and its capital are overwhelmed; 6. Sierra Leone: A slow start to an outbreak that eventually outpaced all others; 7. Key events in the WHO response; 8. WHO technical support – a lasting impact? 9. The natural History of Ebola virus in Africa.
fruiting) will be better predictors for Ebola virus disease spillovers than remotely sensed climatic variables currently used for. bola irs isease 3 Ebola virus disease – an introduction Brief description Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
EVD outbreaks have.Download